GHG is an abbreviation that stands for greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are a group of gases that are present in the Earth's atmosphere and that contribute to the greenhouse effect, which is the process by which the Earth's surface is warmed by the trapping of heat from the sun.

In the maritime context, GHGs are of particular concern because the shipping industry is a major source of GHG emissions. Ships emit GHGs such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) through the burning of fossil fuels, and these emissions contribute to climate change and air pollution.

To address the issue of GHG emissions from the shipping industry, various international organizations, such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO), have developed guidelines and regulations to reduce GHG emissions from ships. These efforts include measures such as improving the efficiency of ships, using alternative fuels, and implementing emissions trading schemes.

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